By Shiv Singh
Within most corporations, taking ownership of an intranet is an unglamorous, exhausting, and thankless job for a new intranet manager. Many corporate intranets lack thoughtful, focused, and disciplined design and are often extremely large and unwieldy. Fixing these intranets can seem an impossible and futile task.
Furthermore, with new terminology proliferating from the armies of IT consultants, software vendors and business professors in the marketplace, it is becoming even harder to define an intranet, determine what it should accomplish, and measure those accomplishments. In the domain of company intranets, terms like empty portals, peer-to-peer sharing, smart enterprises, digital dashboards, social networks, taxonomy design, and knowledge management all come together and compete for attention and dollars. These buzzwords capture the imagination of senior executives who force you to devote dollars to intranet-related initiatives that the organization may not be ready for or that do not benefit the employee community.
Managing these internal and external challenges and developing your intranet into a meaningful, measurable, and relevant business tool can be difficult and draining. But if you reduce your intranet to its essence, use consultants smartly, manage your stakeholders and users effectively, and approach it with the same rigor, discipline, and focus you do with any other business initiative, your task can quickly become much simpler.
|Defining the intranetís value
Fundamentally, your intranet must be tied to value creation like other business services within your organization. If it does not result in value creation for your business, the intranet is a failed service. Establishing value creation can be tricky. Intranet objectives such as increased employee communication, collaboration, and knowledge management are hard to quantify and measure. As a result, some corporations choose to establish tactile goals in the form of metrics such as page views, total hits, and customer satisfaction ratings. This approach is not effective for understanding and measuring the value creation driven through your intranet. Measuring the value is difficult, as the intranetís greatest benefits to an organization are not in a measurable, packaged, and corporeal form. So how do you determine the value of an intranet?
A recent MIT Sloan Management Review article by C.K. Prahalad and Venkatram Ramaswamy introduces an approach to understanding value creation, which can be applied to understanding an intranetís value as well. Prahalad and Ramaswamy discuss how value is increasingly being defined through the co-creation of experiences in which the consumer (in this case, the employee) triggers value creation through the combination of a personal event-based need and the actual services being provided. The nature of the individualís involvement, the personal event that leads to the interaction, and the personal meaning derived from the interaction are what determine the value creation.
This theory applies to the intranet domain where the intranet alone doesnít create value, but the siteís efficient, able use in the context of specific, individual employee needs does. The use of the intranet in the context of other services provided by the organization also affects the value creation. Unlike a product or service that is sold to a consumer and therefore has an easily recognizable cost and perceived value, the use of an intranet rarely costs an employee anything. As a result, the value is not assessed at the point of purchase but rather at the point of use, and therefore is tied directly to how it is used.
This approach for understanding an intranetís value can seem to make it still harder to measure the value because the value creation happens at a personal, individualized, non-structured, and non-measurable level. Also, measuring the value of the intranet at the point of use puts the onus on the employee to create value by using the intranet more effectively. With such a definition of value creation for your intranet, can the value be measured at all?
Measuring the intranetís value
In this context, breaking up your intranet into discrete, tightly defined services is the first step in measuring its value. These discrete services should provide tangible benefits to narrowly defined target audiences. They should be as self-contained as possible and ideally should be designed, positioned, and perceived as co-services in the context of other services provided in the offline space to the target audiences.
Letís take the case of sales information in a drug company to explore this point. Intranets are commonly used as platforms to distribute market share and sales information to field sales representatives. The effective and efficient dissemination of timely sales information segmented by product and region is, in this example, the means for determining the value creation.
In this case, the business objective is to share the sales information. This objective can be divided into a series of discrete services by information type, namely the broadcasting of general market share information by brand and region; market-specific sales and competitor trends to representatives in a particular region; and finally real time, sales-representative-specific raw sales data that is used to motivate each sales person and communicate progress towards individual monthly targets.
The next step is to take one of these servicesófor example, the communication of sales-representative-specific sales dataóand ask yourself and the specific target audience questions such as:
The questions above are designed to help you truly understand the need for the service, the context in which the service will be used, the tie to the business value through the service, and the personal event triggers that will motivate use of the service. Without looking at each of these elements in the context of each service piece on your intranet, it will be hard to determine value creation and prioritize future enhancements.
- Is this service being delivered in the offline space?
- If so, how effectively is it being delivered and is it reaching all of its target audience?
- Can the service be delivered more effectively and efficiently via the intranet?
- Will it reach a larger percentage of the target audience?
- Will the offline service need to continue once the intranet service is launched?
- How does the target audience benefit from access to the service?
- Under what circumstances will they use this service?
- Does it make a meaningful difference to their jobs?
- Does it enable them to create measurable value for the company?
- Do they have the right tools, usage patterns, and motivations to use the service?
As you go through the exercise above of dividing your intranet into discrete services and determining how they create value for the organization, you will quickly uncover certain trends that are commonly seen across large corporate intranets.
These trends include:
When you complete the exercise of identifying the high-value core servicesói.e., the services on your intranet that result in the greatest value creation for the organization at the least costóyou will discover how your intranet is currently being perceived and valued. If your intranet is not providing much value, it is a sign either that thereís lots of room for improvement or that other tools and processes within your organization are serving your employee needs effectively enough.
- Value creation is optimized around a small set of high-value core services, which provide dependable value to tightly defined target audiences.
- These high-value core services are not expensive to deliver and manage. Their success lies in their recognition of basic employee needs and the simplicity with which they respond to those needs.
- High-value core services share similarities in how they serve their audiences, the personal events that trigger their uses, and the methods of generating value through their use. This is because these services are most in tune with the organizational behavior and culture of the organization and fit neatly into that modus operandi.
- Services with extremely narrowly defined audiences based in one location are less successful, as offline and unstructured mechanisms for communication, collaboration, knowledge management, and task performance needs take precedence. Thereís often a direction correlation between the size of your target audiences, how geographically dispersed they are, and the value of a particular service.
- Similarly, services that have carelessly defined target audiences fail because the broader and more loosely defined the target audience, the more challenging it is to identify common personal event triggers and design a service to meaningfully respond to those triggers.
Managing and nurturing talent
Once you have determined where your intranetís value lies, the next questions are what should it do for your organization, and how do you create optimal environments for value creation. This is where two fundamental business drivers come into play: managing your talent pool and listening very closely to your customers.
Managing and nurturing talent is always challenging, and it becomes even harder when providing a technological service to an internal clientele. How do you identify the right resources to deliver on the promise of your intranet? How do you find them in the first place? Do they reside within your organization or do you have to bring in consultants enmasse to do the job for you? What about knowledge transfer and providing exciting growth opportunities for your team once the core set of intranet services has been built?
The following steps can help you manage your talent pool more effectively.
1. Identify an intranet solutions strategist.
The strategist is an individual who intuitively understands the potential of your intranet as well as the limits of what it can cost-effectively accomplish from a business perspective. This person needs to have enough intranet design experience, preferably in other organizations, to be able to quickly grasp the current state of the intranet, identify the key areas to focus on for improvement, and bring in the right skills to execute on the creation of new services and the redesign of existing ones. The intranet solutions strategist needs to have seen it all before, and should ideally also have experience in project execution and the management of interdisciplinary teams. This person can either be an employee or a consultant.
2. Organize your teams by services delivered rather than skill silos.
Interdisciplinary teams are recognized as being more cost-effective and more likely to deliver on-time and on-budget services. Each service team should have the use of the intranet solutions strategistís time for guiding the design and development of their core services. Roles and responsibilities should be determined in a similar fashion to those defined for the cell teams that are common in manufacturing plants. Cell teams closely locate people and equipment required for certain processing families of like products. The cellís operators are often cross-trained on several tasks, engage in job rotation, and take more ownership and responsibility than in normal manufacturing plants. Similarly, your intranet service teams must share a common value system, work practices and means of communication. A certain degree of creative dissonance should be tolerated but nevertheless controlled.
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*Originally published at Boxes and Arrows
About the Author:
Singh is an Experience Lead & Information Architect with SBI.Razorfish.
Working out of SBIís London office, he spent most of 2003 leading
the user research and experience design team for an enterprise intranet
that is being launched in 50 countries over the next two years. Prior
to that, he worked on a large multidisciplinary SBI.Razorfish team
that developed a decision support intranet for a Fortune 1000 company.
He has been conceptualizing, designing, and building websites and
intranets since 1995, and likes to work at the intersection of business
strategy and information architecture.
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